Citation: Huitt, W. (1997). Metacognition.
Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University.
Retrieved [date], from
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- Knowledge about one's own cognitive system; thinking about one's own thinking; essential
skill for learning to learn
- Includes thoughts about (1) what we know or don't know and (2) regulating how we go
"Metacognitive deficiencies are the problem of the novice, regardless of age.
Ignorance is not necessarily age related; rather it is more a function of inexperience in
a new (and difficult) problem situation" (A. L. Brown, 1980, p. 475)
includes the ability to ask and answer the following types of questions:
- What do I know about this subject, topic, issue?
- Do I know what do I need to know?
- Do I know where I can go to get some information, knowledge?
- How much time will I need to learn this?
- What are some strategies and tactics that I can use to learn this?
- Did I understand what I just heard, read or saw?
- How will I know if I am learning at an appropriate rate?
- How can I spot an error if I make one?
- How should I revise my plan if it is not working to my expectations/satisfaction?
Some examples of teacher strategies:
- Have students monitor their own learning and thinking (Example: have student monitor a
peer's learning/thinking/behaving in dyad)
- Have students learn study strategies (e.g., SQ3R,
- Have students make predictions about information to be presented next based on what they
- Have students relate ideas to existing knowledge structures (Important to have relevant
knowledge structures well learned)
- Have students develop questions; ask questions of themselves, about what's going on
around them (Have you asked a good question today?)
- Help students to know when to ask for help (must be able to self-monitor; require
students to show how they have attempted to deal with the problem of their own)
- Show students how to transfer knowledge, attitudes, values, skills to other situations
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